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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-79

Gene mutations in parasitic diseases Part I: Host gene mutations


1 Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Manar M.S El-Tonsy
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1687-7942.205166

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To a large extent, the development and cellular function of any organism are controlled by genes. A gene is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits. The gene is made from a DNA molecule which is copied and inherited across generations and from RNAs that code for a polypeptide or for a RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Gene mutation is a change in DNA nucleotide sequence of a short region of a genome. Alteration in DNA sequence affects all copies of the encoded protein resulting in structural and functional changes or decrease or complete expression loss of the encoded protein. Gene mutation may occur in either the parasite or the host, which may be beneficial or harmful for each. All through this review, the authors will focus on host or parasite gene mutations (causes and types) and their relation(s) to or effect(s) on parasitic diseases. The review presents examples of gene mutations in the host (part I) or parasite (part II) focusing on disease susceptibility or resistance, drug resistance encountered in several parasitic diseases, carcinogenesis, virulence, pathogenesis, and clinical outcome as well as their relations with insecticide resistance and vector control. Abbreviations: CM: Cerebral malaria, G6PD: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; MBL: Mannose-binding lectin; mdr: Multi-drug resistance gene; NO: Nitric oxide; SNP: Single-nucleotide polymorphism; VL: Visceral leishmaniasis.


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