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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-85

Do protozoa play a role in carcinogenesis?


1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Eman K El-Gayar
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1687-7942.149553

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All forms of infectious microbes, such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, can induce an inflammatory immune response which, under toxic environmental conditions, can cause cancer cells to grow. Some parasitic species were documented to have carcinogenic activity, namely; Schistosoma hematobium associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the liver flukes Opisthorchis and Chlonorchis associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the bile duct. This review aimed to examine the association of selected protozoa in human cancer. CONTENTS Introduction Cryptosporidium parvum Toxoplasma gondii Trichomonas vaginalis Blastocystis hominis Plasmodium falciparum Concluding remarks References Abbreviations: Apc: expression of tumor suppressor; ASC-H: atypical high grade squamous cells; ASCUS: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; BCL2: B cell lymphoma; β-catenin: the coordinator of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription; c-Myc: transcription factor; CTL: cytotoxic T lymphocytes; eBL: endemic Burkitt lymphoma; EBV: Epstein Barr virus; Fas: apoptosis stimulating fragment; HCT8: human ileocaecal carcinoma; HCT116: human colorectal carcinoma cells; IFN-g: interferon gamma; miRNAome: 18-23 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence specific manner; miRNAs: micro RNAs; NF-Kb: nuclear factor kappa light-chain; SCID: severe combined immunodeficient; SIL-H: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; TLR4: toll like receptor 4; TNFα: tumor necrosis alpha; Wnt: a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals from outside of a cell through cell surface receptors to the inside of the cell; ZO-1: a tight junction protein encoded by the TJP1 gene in humans


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