• Users Online: 60
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 68-74

Efficacy of combination therapy (metronidazole and/or artemether) in experimental giardiasis and its impact on nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers


Department of Parasitology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Imbaba, Egypt

Date of Submission03-Sep-2013
Date of Acceptance15-Mar-2014
Date of Web Publication25-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Zeinab H Fahmy
PhD, Department of Parasitology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Imbaba, PO Box 30
Egypt
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1687-7942.139692

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background
Giardia lamblia trophozoites colonize in the upper small intestine resulting in diarrhea and various clinical manifestations, including abdominal pain, anorexia, and signs of malabsorption. A decrease in the level of trace elements might occur because of this absorption deficiency resulting from giardiasis. Experimentally, the excretory secretory product of G. lamblia trophozoites increased the level of reactive oxygen species in mice enterocytes. The levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin are often used as major nonenzymatic oxidative biomarkers.
Objective
This study was designed to determine the effect of therapy by metronidazole (MTZ) and artemether (ART) on trophozoite and cyst forms in experimentally Giardia spp.-infected hamsters and to reveal the changes in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) serum levels pretreatment and post-treatment. Another objective was to evaluate the impact of this therapy on serum levels of bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin as nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers.
Materials and methods
Hamsters were divided into four groups: the control group I included two subgroups, Ia (noninfected, nontreated) and Ib (infected, nontreated); group II (infected and treated with MTZ); group III (infected and treated with ART); and group IV (infected and treated with combined therapy of MTZ+ART). Hamsters of all four groups were killed 5 weeks postinfection (PI) - that is, 2 weeks after treatment - to evaluate drug efficacy. Stool samples and duodenal contents were examined to count the number of G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites, respectively. Blood samples were also collected to estimate trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr) as well as nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers (bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin).
Results
There was a significant reduction in trophozoite and cyst counts following treatment with ART alone (88 and 82.5%, respectively) as compared with the infected control group Ib. Treatment with MTZ alone and in combination with ART also yielded a very high percentage of reduction in both trophozoites (94.2 and 98.3%, respectively) and cysts counts (93.9 and 95.5%, respectively). The trace elements in serum of infected controls (Ib) displayed nonsignificant decrease in Fe and significant decrease in Mn levels as compared with their levels in noninfected hamsters of group Ia. Cu levels increased in the infected group and were still increased after treatment with either MTZ or ART but decreased to normal with the combined therapy. Cr levels showed no significant change in all groups. Uric acid increased in infected controls as compared with normal controls. Treatment with MTZ or ART alone decreased uric acid levels lower than normal, and the combination of both drugs normalized its levels. Evaluation of serum bilirubin levels in the infected group and in those treated by MTZ and ART alone did not show any statistically significant differences compared with the normal noninfected group. Treatment with the combined therapy yielded even slightly lower insignificant level. Albumin level also did not differ significantly except in the combined regimen where it was lower than the normal range.
Conclusion
The effect of giardiasis on the changes in the level of trace elements and nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers is relevant in this study. The combined therapy produced significant parasite eradication and normalized the studied parameters with the exception of Mn and albumin levels, which were adversely affected and remained lower than normal. Further studies are needed to evaluate these data in undernourished and chronically infected hamsters.

Keywords: artemether, biomarkers, combination therapy, giardiasis, metronidazole, trace elements


How to cite this article:
Aly EM, Sabry HY, Fahmy ZH, Zalat RS. Efficacy of combination therapy (metronidazole and/or artemether) in experimental giardiasis and its impact on nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers. Parasitol United J 2014;7:68-74

How to cite this URL:
Aly EM, Sabry HY, Fahmy ZH, Zalat RS. Efficacy of combination therapy (metronidazole and/or artemether) in experimental giardiasis and its impact on nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers. Parasitol United J [serial online] 2014 [cited 2017 Dec 13];7:68-74. Available from: http://www.new.puj.eg.net/text.asp?2014/7/1/68/139692


  Introduction Top


Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that frequently coexists with Entamoeba histolytica and is transmitted in the same way. It occurs worldwide, particularly where sanitation is poor, and it is a common cause of both acute and persistent diarrhea among children in developing countries. In addition, several large waterborne epidemics have occurred almost all over the world, including northern regions of the former USSR and also Canada and USA, where beavers may provide a reservoir of infection [1] . Ingested cysts release trophozoites that attach firmly to the jejunal mucosa. These multiply and eventually form another generation of cysts, which are excreted intermittently in the feces. Many carriers are symptomless, but others lose weight and complain of diarrhea or gastrointestinal discomfort [2] . Diagnosis requires skilled microscopy, and false-negative tests are common because cysts are excreted in stools irregularly. Confirmatory examination of jejunal aspirates may be necessary. Extensive infections result in intestinal malabsorption and impairment of growth. Severe symptoms are more likely to occur in patients who are malnourished, hypochlorhydric, or immunocompromised [3] .

This is significant as the prevalence of vitamin and mineral deficiencies is high in developing countries [4] . These micronutrients act as essential cofactors of enzymes and as organizers of molecular structures of the cell [5] . Children and pregnant and lactating women are the most vulnerable groups. In preschool age children, micronutrient deficiencies increase the risk for acute diarrhea and pneumonia. These deficiencies are responsible for a great number of deaths and a large proportion of the disease burden worldwide [6] , and also impinge on economic and human capital development [7] .

Iron (Fe) deficiency impairs immune function and limits cognitive development in children, causes low productivity in adults, and increases the risk of perinatal death [8],[9] . Zinc deficiency affects children's physical growth and increases the risk for and severity of diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections [10],[11] . Manganese (Mn) is a cofactor of more than 300 enzymes. It participates in the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, neuromuscular transmission, and in cardiac contraction [12] . In addition, the low bioavailability of Mn in giardiasis can be caused by binding to free fatty acids in the gut lumen as a result of fat malabsorption [5] . Copper (Cu) participates in the synthesis of connective tissue and the myelin sheath of nerves, as well as in energy and iron metabolism; it is the reductive agent of iron oxidase enzymes and is a constituent of the ceruloplasmins involved in iron transport and absorption [13] . Cu deficiency manifests as hypochromic anemia, and in children it has been associated with osteoporosis and stunting [14],[15] . Yet, elevated Cu levels could be attributed to changes in the concentration of specific tissue proteins controlled by cytokines [16] .

A decrease may occur in the levels of trace elements because of absorption deficiency resulting from giardiasis [17] . In experimental giardiasis, an enterotoxin purified from the excretory secretory product of Giardia spp. trophozoites increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice enterocytes, and this correlated well with decline in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase [18] . Intestinal homogenates of G. lamblia-infected rats displayed high degree of cell injury and lipid peroxidation as indicated by the statistically significant higher lactate dehydrogenase activity and higher malondialdehyde level, respectively, compared with the noninfected rats [19] . Estimation of levels of uric acid, albumin, and bilirubin is often used as major nonenzymatic antioxidant biomarkers [20],[21] .

Therapeutic strategy in giardiasis has included diverse pharmaceutical agents of traditional use, such as MTZ, quinacrine, furazolidone, and paromomycin [22],[23] . Other drugs of more recent introduction, such as albendazole and nitazoxanide, have also been applied in clinical practice [24] . Of these, MTZ (a 5-nitroimidazole) and albendazole (a benzimidazole) may be considered the most representative antigiardial agents of traditional and recent use, respectively. However, reports pointed to an increasing frequency of cases refractory to treatment with both drugs [25],[26] , the causes of which include treatment noncompliance and emergence of drug-resistant Giardia spp. strains [27]. An in vitro study evaluated the effect of natural plant extracts (Myrtus communis and olibanum) as alternative antigiardial agent to overcome the side effects and the emerging drug resistance against imidazole derivatives. Both plants inhibited G. lamblia multiplication in vivo and resulted in ventral disc and axoneme fragmentations after 48 h in vitro incubation [28] .

The generally accepted mechanism of action of the antimalarial drug ART involves the interaction of a peroxide-containing drug with heme, a hemoglobin degradation byproduct derived from proteolysis of hemoglobin. This interaction is believed to result in the formation of a range of potentially toxic oxygen and carbon-centered radicals. The WHO has been promoting an artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating malaria [29],[30] . ART and its related compounds enhance the efficacy of antimalarial combination therapy and have the potential of lowering the rate at which resistance emerges and spreads. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are particularly known to be the most effective because of their high killing rates, and they have become the mainstay chemotherapeutic agents for malaria [29] . Few studies have reported the ART effect against other protozoa including Giardia spp. [25],[26] . Numerous studies have investigated the type of damage that may be induced by oxygen radicals [19-21,31].

This study was designed to reveal the changes in iron, manganese, copper, and chromium levels pretreatment and post-treatment with ART and/or MTZ in infected animals. In addition, evaluation of the changes in bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin levels in hamsters experimentally infected with Giardia spp. was also performed, as they are considered as nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers.


  Materials and methods Top


Type of the study

This is a case control study conducted at the animal house and Parasitology Department, Theodore Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Egypt.

Animals

Male golden hamsters, weighing 100-110 g each, were provided by Schistosome Biological Supply Center (SBSP) at TBRI.

Infection

G. lamblia was collected from stool of patients attending outpatient clinic at TBRI. Positive stools were pooled, filtered, and then concentrated by a series of centrifugations and filtrations. Cysts were counted in 0.1 ml of sediment and the infection dose was calculated in 1 ml to reach about 10 +3 cysts/ml. Hamsters were infected orally by esophageal tube [32] .

Drugs and dose

ART was obtained in tablet form (Kunming Pharmaceutical Cooperation, Yunnan province, China) with a documented purity of 99.6%. A dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was given for 3 consecutive days [31] . MTZ suspension (Rhone Poulenc Rorer, Sanofi Aventis, Cairo, Egypt) was given at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 successive days [33] .

Experimental groups

Each group comprised 10 hamsters. The control group included two subgroups: Ia (noninfected, nontreated) and Ib (infected, nontreated). Group II received MTZ. Group III received ART. Group IV was infected and treated with a combination of 1/3 the dose of MTZ and 2/3 the dose of ART [27] .

Study design and methods

Three weeks PI, animals were administered medication orally using stainless steel esophageal tube. Two weeks after treatment, stool analysis was performed by the merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration technique, and G. lamblia cysts were counted in a weighed aliquot then calculated in 1 g of stool [32] . Animals of all four groups were killed 5 weeks PI - that is, 2 weeks after treatment - to evaluate drug efficacy. The small bowel was removed and the number of trophozoites was counted in 1 cm of duodenal tissue [32] . Blood samples were collected and sera were separated and stored at −20°C for analysis. Levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Cr were determined by a direct method using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer [34] . Serum total bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin were also determined [35],[36],[37] .

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using one-way analysis of variance [38] . Comparison between the two groups was made by the Student test. The data were considered significant if P value was less than 0.05.

Ethical consideration

The TBRI approved the experimental study, which was conducted according to the husbandry guidelines.


  Results Top


Parasitological parameters

[Table 1] shows that, as compared with infected control (Ib), a significant reduction in trophozoite count occurred in intestinal tissue following treatment with ART (88%), and a higher reduction (94.2%) was obtained following MTZ treatment. Group IV, given both drugs at reduced dose, also yielded a very high percentage of reduction (98.3%) [Table 2], revealing the changes in G. lamblia cyst counts in 1 g stool. The infected group treated with ART showed significant reduction (82.5%), but a higher significant reduction was encountered with MTZ (93.9%). Group IV (combined regimen) showed the highest reduction percentage (95.5%).
Table 1: Effect of treatment by ART and/or MTZ on Giardia lamblia trophozoite forms in the small intestine, 5 weeks PI and 2 weeks after treatment

Click here to view
Table 2: Effect of treatment by ART and/or MTZ on the number of Giardia lamblia cysts excreted in stool, 5 weeks PI and 2 weeks after treatment

Click here to view


Evaluation of serum bilirubin [Table 3] levels in groups Ib, II, and III did not show any statistically significant differences compared with the normal noninfected group (Ia). Treatment with the combined therapy (group IV) yielded even slightly lower insignificant level. Albumin levels also did not differ significantly except in the combined regimen where it was lower than the normal range. Uric acid, in contrast, increased in infected control (Ib) as compared with normal, but treatment with MTZ or ART alone (groups II and III) decreased the level of uric acid even lower than normal. The combination of both drugs normalized uric acid levels. Considering the trace elements in serum of infected hamsters [Table 4], Fe level displayed nonsignificant changes in all groups as compared with their levels in the normal noninfected animal group (Ia). Level of Mn decreased in the infected control group (Ib). Treatment with either therapy alone (groups II and III) did not improve the Mn level. With combined therapy (group IV), the level improved but remained significantly lower than normal. In all groups, the Cr levels were not different compared with normal control. In contrast, Cu levels increased in infected group (Ib) and were still increased after treatment except after the combined therapy in group IV.
Table 3: Nonenzymatic biochemical parameters in serum, pretreatment and post-treatment with ART and/or MTZ in experimental giardiasis

Click here to view
Table 4: Concentration (mg/ml) of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Fe in serum samples, pretreatment and post-treatment with ART and/or MTZ in experimental giardiasis

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Chronic giardiasis is one of the most common causes of severe malabsorption and weight loss especially in children and pregnant women, and it contributes to increased mortality in the immunocompromised patients [39] . Adhesion of trophozoites to the intestinal epithelium is crucial for both the initial colonization and the maintenance of infection, as parasites that do not attach or cannot move in the flow of intestinal fluid are expelled [40] . The majority of patients with chronic giardiasis were successfully treated with MTZ and only 10-20% of patients were reported to fail the response to MTZ therapy [25, 27, 41]. Nash et al. [25] proposed six potential causes for treatment failures in giardiasis: reinfection, inadequate drug levels, immunosuppression, drug-resistant strains, sequestration of G. lamblia trophozoites in the gallbladder or pancreatic ducts, and unknown reasons. Drug-resistant strains and trophozoites sequestration are reasons that could not be determined in the clinical patients with failed response to MTZ.

Epidemiological studies showed variable results regarding response of protozoa to MTZ therapy. Up to 30% of Helicobacter pylori and Trichomonas vaginalis patients showed relevant clinical resistance to MTZ [41],[42] . In contrast, clinical MTZ resistance was not observed in E. histolytica, and laboratory-acquired resistance could only be induced at low parasite levels [43] , whereas clinical G. lamblia patients showed an intermediate position in MTZ-resistant strains [44] with strong evidence for marked laboratory-acquired MTZ resistance [26],[45] .

Several studies proposed a switch to other antiprotozoal agents [25],[26] or to antimalarial agents [29] . Artemisinin was evaluated in several experimental studies as antihelminthic [46] as well as antiprotozoal agent [29],[47] . In the present study, administration of combination therapy (MTZ+ART) produced the highest significant decrease in Giardia spp. cysts count in stool, as well as remarkable reduction in the number of trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa. The effect of treatment on infection intensity in all groups was highly significant. In a study conducted in Mexico, ART was shown to ameliorate the deleterious effect of G. lamblia on the intestinal mucosa of infected animals. The investigators claimed that there was complete villus regeneration compared with the infected control group [47] . Another study conducted in Egypt showed that artesunate was active in vitro against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia. The investigators attributed this activity to a reduction in the production of interleukin-12, a cytokine that is important in the regulation of cell-mediated immune responses [29] . The association between giardiasis and Whipple's disease led to raising the question of whether alteration in the immune system facilitates infections or whether the development of infection leads to immunosuppression [48] .

On the basis that an adequate supply of trace elements is required in gastro intestinal tract for the structure and function of metalloproteinases that participate in energy production and protection against ROS [49] , and that diarrhea may be exacerbated by micronutrients deficiency [50],[51] , we measured serum levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr before and after treatment in hamsters of the study groups. Fe levels were not affected and displayed no significant decrease in all groups as compared with the normal noninfected animal group Ia. However, Mn levels decreased significantly in the infected nontreated control group Ib and treatment in groups II, III, and IV did not improve Mn levels, which were still lower, although the combined MTZ and ART therapy in group IV ameliorated its level. This could be due to the reduced doses of these drugs when used in combination, pointing to their possible potential role as stress agents. Drug exposure could induce free radical formation and lipid peroxidation initiated by free radicals, which is considered deleterious for cell membranes and has been implicated in a number of pathological situations [52] .

In addition, combined therapy in the present study also normalized Cu levels, which increased significantly, whereas Cr levels were not altered. The study of trace elements in giardiasis has gained much attention especially in children living under poor socioeconomic conditions. In other reports, chronic giardiasis was found to lower the serum Fe and zinc levels, whereas Cu levels did not change [53] . Recently, another study conducted in Egypt also recorded significantly decreased zinc and Fe levels in giardiasis-infected children (1-5 years) with lower weights [54] .

In the present study, nonenzymatic markers such as bilirubin, uric acid, and albumin were measured to evaluate their levels as oxidative stress markers in experimental giardiasis. Despite a number of studies pointing to bilirubin antioxidant capacity [55],[56] , it was reported that its role as a scavenger of ROS is still controversial [57] . This seems to account for its dual nature, acting as an antioxidant at low physiologic levels, whereas beyond a given threshold it is no longer beneficial [56] . In our study, bilirubin level did not show significant change, whereas albumin level was lower than the normal range in the combined regimen.

In contrast, uric acid revealed significant increase after infection. This was confirmed by experimental and clinical evidence showing that uric acid has an important role as an oxidative stress marker and a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant [58] . Our results showed that uric acid levels increased in the infected nontreated control group (Ib) as compared with the normal group (1a), but treatment with MTZ or ART alone (groups II and III) decreased its level even lower than the normal level, and combination therapy (group IV) normalized its levels. Uric acid is known to provide a significant antioxidant defense against nitration by peroxynitrite [59] . In experimental giardiasis, uric acid probably counterbalances the excessive production of free radicals and acts as a compensatory host response to the deficiency of antioxidant micronutrients [58] .


  Conclusion Top


The relevant effect of giardiasis on changes in levels of trace elements and nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers was determined. Combined MTZ/ART therapy resulted in significant parasite eradication, significantly normalized Cu levels but Mn levels were still decreased, and normalized bilirubin and uric acid but decreased albumin levels. The animals in this study were kept on a standard diet, which could be considered a factor in the minimal variation in serum trace elements. Further studies are needed to evaluate these parameters in undernourished and chronically infected hamsters. Meanwhile, further studies are recommended to evaluate combined therapies in clinical randomized studies.


  Author contribution Top


E.M. Aly, Z.H. Fahmy, and R.S. Zalat shared equally in the practical work, including parasite isolation and conduction of the experimental studies. H.Y. Sabry planned the study and wrote the manuscript.


  Acknowledgements Top




 
  References Top

1.
Gyawali N, Amata R, Nepal HP. Intestinal parasitosis in school going children of Dharan municipality, Nepal. Trop Gastroenterol 2009; 30:145-147.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Adam RD. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14: 447-475.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Morales-Ruán Mdel C, Villalpando S, García-Guerra A, et al. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years. Salud Publica Mex 2012; 54:125-134.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Global report. Ottawa, Canada: Micronutrient Initiative, Investing in the future. A united call to action on vitamin and mineral deficiencies 2009.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Anderson JJB, Minerals-Mahan LK, Escott-Stump Seds Kruse's food, nutrition, and diet therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders Haecourt Brace; 2000. 120-163.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZQA, et al. Maternal and child under-nutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008; 371:243-260.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Allen L, Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrel R. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Switzerland: World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Scholl TO, Reilly T. Anemia, iron and pregnancy outcome. J Nutr 2000; 130:443S-447SS.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Stoltzfus RJ. Iron deficiency: global prevalence and consequences. Food Nutr Bull 2003; 24:S99-103.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Brown KH, Peerson JM, Baker SJ, Hess SY. Preventive zinc supplementation infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children. Food Nutr Bull 2009; 30:S12-S40.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Hess SY, Lönnerdal B, Hotz C, Rivera JA, Brown K. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health. Food Nutr Bull 2009; 30:S5-11.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Swaminathan R. Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. Clin Biochem Rev 2003; 24:47-66.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Fraga C. Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Mol Aspects Med 2005; 26:235-244.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Cater MA, Mercer JFB. In: Tamás MJ, Martinoia E, eds. Copper in mammals: mechanisms of homeostasis and pathophysiology; molecular biology of metal homeostasis and detoxification. Topics in current genetics. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag Heiderlberg; 2005. 101-129.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Desai V, Kaler SG. Role of copper in human neurological disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:855S-858SS.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Shenkin A. Trace elements and inflammatory response: implications for nutritional support. Nutrition 1995; 11:100-105.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Taskapan C, Atambay M, Aycan OM, et al. Serum zinc (Zn) levels in patients with giardiasis. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2007; 31:14-16.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Shant J, Ghosn S, Bhattacharyya S, Ganguly NK, Majumdar S. Mode of action of a potentially important excretory from Giardia lamblia in mice enteroxytes. Parasitology 2005; 131:57-69.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
El-Taweel HA, El-Zawawy LA, Said DE, Sharara GM. Influence of the antioxidant drug (Antox) on experimental giardiasis and microsporidiosis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2007; 37:189-204.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Ihara H, Hashizume N, Hasegawa T, Yoshida M. Antioxidant capacities of ascorbic acid, uric acid, alpha-tocopherol, and bilirubin can be measured in the presence of another antioxidant, serum albumin. J Clin Lab Anal 2004; 18:45-49.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Ghuang CC, Shiesh SC, Chi CH, et al. Serum total antioxidant capacity reflects severity of illness in patients with severs sepsis. Crit Care 2006; 10:R36.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Gardner TB, Hill DR. Treatment of giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14:114-128.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Harris JC, Plummer S, Lloyd D. Anti-giardial drugs. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001; 57:614-619.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Abboud P, Lemee V, Gargala G, et al. Successful treatment of mebendazole and albendzole resistant giardiasis with nitazxanide in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32:438-439.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Nash TE, Ohl CA, Thomas E, Subramanian G, Keiser P, Moore TA. Treatment of patients with refractory giardiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:22-28.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Tejman-Yarden N, Eckmann L. New approaches to the treatment of giardiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2011; 24:451-456.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Amer N, Mahmoud S, Helmy A, Hammam O. The role of probiotcs in controlling Giardia intestinalis in experimental animals. New Egypt J Med 2007; 37:13-23.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Abdalla SF, Ramadan NI, Mohamed AA, EL-Deeb HK. A study on the effect of Myrtus communis and Olibanum on Giardia lamblia infection in Egypt. Parasitologists United J 2010; 4:89-100.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Lin JT, Juliano JJ, Wongsrichanalai C. Drug-resistant Malaria: the era of ACT. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2010; 12:165-173.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Simba DO, Warsame M, Kakoko D, et al. Who gets prompt access to artemisinin-based combination therapy? PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e12104.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Mahmoud S, Guirguis N, Sabry HY, Aly I. Effect of a novel antimalarial drug on different pathological and parasitological parameters in experimental intestinal giardiasis. New Egypt J Med 2006; 35:38-43.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Blagg W, Schlogel E, Mansour NS, Khaled GJ. A new concentration technique for the demonstration of protozoa and helminth's eggs in feces. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1955; 1:23-28.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Paget GE, Barnes JM. In: Laurence DR, Backarach AL, eds. Evaluation of results: qualitative application in different species. Evaluation of drug activities. Pharmacometrics. London and New York: Academic Press; 1964. 160-167.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Nuttall KL, Gordon WH, Ash KO. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for trace element analysis in the clinical laboratory. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1995; 25:264-271.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Doumas BT, Kwok-Cheung PP, Perry B, et al. Candidate reference method for determination of total bilirubin in serum: development and validation. Clin Chem 1985; 31:79-1789.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Lia O, Zhao F, Zhao YS, Tao Ln, Zhu J. Evaluation of a kinetic uricase method for serum uric acid assay by predicting background absorbance of uricase reaction solution with an integrated method. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2011; 7:497-502.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Hill PG. The measurement of albumin in serum and plasma. Ann Clin Biochem 1985; 22:565-578.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Campbell, RC. Statistics for biologists. 3rd ed. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Sydney: Cambridge University Press; 1989.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Ankarklev J, Jerlstrom-Hultqvist J, Ringqvist E, Troell K, Svard SG. Behind the smile: cell biology and disease mechanisms of Giardia species. Nat Rev Microbiol 2010; 8:413-422.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Hernandez-Sanchez J, Linan RF, Salinas-Tobon Mdel R, Ortega-Pierres G. Giardia duodenalis: adhesion-deficient clones have reduced ability to establish infection in Mongolian gerbils. Exp Parasitol 2008; 119:364-372.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14:150-164.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Kariuki S, Hart CA. Global aspects of antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacteria. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001; 14:579-586.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Pal D, Banerjee S, Cui J, Schwartz A, Ghosh SK, Samuelson J. Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas enzymes activate metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivate metronidazole (nitroimidazole reductases). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53:458-464.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Lemee V, Zaharia I, Nevez G, et al. Metronidazole and albendazole susceptibility of 11 clinical isolates of Giardia duodenalis from France. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000; 46:819-821.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Muller J, Sterk M, Hemphill A, Muller N. Characterization of Giardia lamblia WB C6 clones resistant to nitazoxanide and to metronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 60:280-287.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
El Komy WM, El-Shennawy AM, Hassan SI, Hafez SM, Hussein MI. Effect of Artemisia plant on parasite load and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. New Egypt J Med 2008; 39:94-104.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Fernández SS, Guerra MCR, Cárdenas BDM, Vilarreal JV, Treviño LV. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia iudoviciana. Fitoterapia 2005; 76:466-468.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Gil-Ruiz JA, Gil-Simón P, Aparicio-Duque R, Mayor-Jerez JL. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2005; 97:521-526.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Failla ML. Trace elements and host defense: recent advances and containing challenges. J Nutr 2003; 133:14435-14475.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Fischer Walker Cl, Black RE. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Clin infect Dis 2007; 45:S73-S77.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Evans P, Halliwell B. Micronutrients: oxidant/antioxidant status. Br J Nutr 2001; 85:S73-S77.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MTD. Metals: toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 2005; 12:1161-1209.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Demicirci M, Delibas N, Altuntas I, Oktem F, Yonden Z. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis. J Health Popul Nutr 2003; 21:72-75.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Abou-Shady O, El Raziky MS, Zaki MM, Mohamed RK. Impact of Giardia lamblia on growth, serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron in Egyptian children. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011; 140:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Dennery PA, McDonagh AF, Spitz DR, et al. Hyperbilirubinemia results in reduced oxidative injury in neonatal Gunn rats exposed to hyperoxia. Free Radic Biol Med 1995; 19:395-404.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Baranano, DE, Rao M, Snyder SH. Biliverdin reductase: a major physiologic cytoprotectant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 16093-16098.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Asad SF, Singh S, Ahmad A, et al. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities of bilirubin and its metabolic precursor biliverdin: a structure-activity study. Chem Biol Interact 2001; 137:59-74.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Glantzounis GK, Tsimoyiannis EC, Kappas AM, Galaris DA. Uric acid and oxidative stress. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 32:4145-4151.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Teng RJ, Ye YZ, Parks DA, Beckman JS. Urate produced during hypoxia protects heart proteins from peroxynitrite mediated protein nitration. Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33:1243-1249.  Back to cited text no. 59
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Author contribution
Acknowledgements
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed391    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded58    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]