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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-46

Evaluation of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic female trichomoniasis

1 Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, National Liver Institute, Rabigh Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Universities, Menoufiya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Amera F Afif
MD, Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Yassein Abdel-Ghaffar St., Shebin El-Kom, 23154, Menoufia, Egypt

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1687-7942.139689

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Background Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. This infection is the most prevalent nonviral STD and may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Accurate diagnosis is therefore necessary for specific treatment to facilitate control of infection and to prevent complication. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate different techniques for diagnosing trichomoniasis in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Patients and methods The present study included 85 nonpregnant female patients aged 18-50 years. According to the presence of symptoms related to vaginitis (discharge, itching, dysuria, dyspareunia, lower abdominal pain, and backache), patients were divided into two groups (symptomatic and asymptomatic). Vaginal samples were examined by wet mount, Giemsa stain, acridine orange stain (AO), and culture on modified diamond media in addition to PCR. Results The detection rate of T. vaginalis infection was 27.1, 28.2, 30.6, 35.3, and 57.1% using Giemsa stain, wet mount, AO, culture, and PCR, respectively. Giemsa stain, wet mount, and AO stain had a sensitivity of 76.7, 80, and 86.7%, respectively, when compared with culture. PCR detected all patients among the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups when compared with the culture method. The detection rate of T. vaginalis infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by culture and PCR was 38.1 versus 51.8% and 27.3 versus 36.4%, respectively. The infection was commonest in the age range of 18-36 years. Conclusion The high sensitivity and specificity of PCR reported in this study offers a useful rapid screening tool and provides an excellent alternative for definitive laboratory diagnosis of T. vaginalis, particularly in asymptomatic patients, thus reducing spread and transmission of the infection as well as minimizing the complication sequels.

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